Xorazm Region (Uzbek: Xorazm viloyati, Хоразм вилояти, خارەزم ۋىلايەتى) or Khorezm Region as it is still more commonly known, is a viloyat (region) of Uzbekistan located in the northwest of the country in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya River. It borders with Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Bukhara Region. Khorezm region is located in the north west of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The total area is 6,1 thousand sq km and occupies 1,4 percent of the territory of Uzbekistan. The number of the available population is equal to 1835,5 thousand people in the case of January 1, 2019. 33,2 percent of the population lives in the city, 66,8 percent in the village. Khorezm Region is divided into 10 administrative districts and 2 cities. The capital is Urgench (pop est 135,000). Other major towns include Xonqa, Khiva, Shovot, and Pitnak. The climate is typically arid continental, with cold winters and extremely hot, dry summers. The region is located between 40°-31° and 42° eastern lengths of northern latitudes 60°-62° according to the geographic location. The territory is 280 km from the north-west to the South-East, and the city of Urgench extends around 80 km from the west to the East. The northernmost point of the region is to the Nuronbobo Brigade near Olchin village of Gurlan district. And the southern edge point is located some time south of the soil. Khorezm region is divided into two parts in terms of land structure. It can be divided into a large northern part with a height of 100-110 m above sea level and an edge southern part with a height of 120-150 meters above sea level.
Khorezm is a place where many famous scholars were born, such as Abu Rayhan Biruni and al-Khwārizmī. The famous terms algorithm and algebra come from the works of the latter. Algorithm is a modified spelling of Khwārizmī and algebra derives from his famous work "al-jabr wa-l-muqābala".
Khorezm oasis always attracted attention with its majestic beauty, uniqueness and mystery. The scientists have begun to study the history of ancient Khorezm only in the middle of the last century, and still it hides a multitude of amazing secrets.
Khorezm region has many ancient fortress and monuments that reflects national architectural inheritance of Uzbekistan.
It also should be noted that this region has a great scientists. Name of the great mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khorazmiy (end of VIII-IX century beginning) immortalized in the notion of "algorithm". The word "algebra" sounds almost the same in all languages of the world. It has entered into use by the works of the great scholar of Khorezm. His mathematical treatise called "Al Jabr wal Muqabala" from the first word of which was an international name of science - algebra.
Modern Khorezm is an area in which the natural and economic conditions are favorable for the development of various sectors of the economy.
Khorezm carpets are famous all over the world. As a result of an emphasis on the repair and restoration of historic, cultural and architectural sites, increase the flow of foreign and domestic tourists that reflects in rapidly developing tourism industry.
PASSAGES FROM THE HISTORY OF KHORAZM
Khorezm is considered as one of the most ancient sources of human civilization. Not only cultural identity but also natural geographic landscape of Khorezm played an important role in its development. Situated at the low flow of the Amu-darya river, with fertile land, diligent people, highly improved agriculture from ancient times, became the reason of formation of early states, peculiar culture and ethnics unity there.
By specifying, in the territory of Khorezm even in the Bronze Age the farming based on irrigated agriculture was formed. The found tangible goods in Tozaboghyob, Suvyorgan, Amirobod destinations indicate that the high culture existed once. The social-economic progressions ensued at about 1000 B.C. enhanced the chance for the formation of early states.
The art of agriculture and state formation procession in Khorezm oasis caused the creationsd of the monuments peculiar to towns. For instance, historical-cultural monuments in Jonosqala, Govurqala, Qo`yqirilganqala, Tuproqqala, Qirqala, Ayozqala, Teshikqala, Yakkaparson, Pilqala, Qo`rghoshinqala, Jetiosor in northen-east districts,establishment of Devsolganqala, Khozorasp, Guldursun, To`qqala, Burgutqala, Kuyukqala, Badirkent, and other tens of ancient towns and fortresses witnesses far ancient historical cultural development here.
In ancient Khorezm of V-IV centruries own alphabet system and writing culture were shaped. Even if the writing system was based on 20 letters, шу it was difficult to read the manuscripts in it. Khorezm became one of the first independent states from Kangh reign. Afrighiy dynasty reign begins from this period. The dynasty formed separate stage in the history of Uzbek statesthe Mamun dynasty began. In 995, and Oltinshoh dynasty began its power in 1017.
It is known that early IX-XIIIth centuries are known with the name of the Oriental Renaissance or Islam renaissance period in the history of the Eastern people. It is worthy to say that during this period East and Central Asia, Khorezm, Khurasan, Iran, Northern India and other neighboring countries gained high achievements in social-economic, cultural, scientific-educational spheres of life.
Mukhammed Al-Khorezmiy (783-850), the leader of the House of Sages (Baytul Hikma), scientific supervisor, was the founder of new direction and school in science. He inherited tens of scientific works on astronomy, mathematics, geography, history and other fields. His book ‘Al-Jabir Val Muqobala’ was one of the first fundamental books of algebra.
During Mamun dynasty Khorezm science-education and culture flourished and Khorezm Mamun Academy was founded. In it the scientists and experts under the guidance of great encyclopedist and scientists Abu Raykhon Beruniy raised the honor of Khorezm state prestige to the high level with their wonderful discoveries and scientific works for its and future periods.
The Anushtegin–Khorezmshahs era (1097-1231) is considered as an important milestone in the history of the Uzbek statehood not only in the history of Khorezm, but also in Central Asian countries. Starting in the IXth century, the Renaissance has reached its peak during the Khorezmshahs period.
The heart of the fight against the Mongol invasion was the period of heroic life of Jaloliddin Manguberdi. During the Mongolian rule (1220-1388), Khorezm separated between Jughi and Chigatai’s countries. Amir Temur joined Khorezm in his reign, where Temur's reign continued with interruptions until 1505. Finally, in 1511 Khiva Khanate was founded.
In historical sources Khiva being the capital, were included the names of 58 khans who have ruled Khiva (from 1556 to 1920). Some khans were crowned twice, andYodgorkhan was crowned three times between 1773 and 1790.
The Khiva khanate dynasty, originated from Eltuzarhon, was called Kungrad Dynasty in the history of Khorezm. The coming of this dynasty to power has been the result of their struggle for many years. The first stage of the struggle was initiated by the Kungrad Sufis in the 60s of the XIV century, and Muhammad Amin, started the second step in the XVIIIth century, and ended with the reign of Eltuzar Khan as the Khan of Khiva Khanate.
Representatives of this dynasty tried to restore ancient Khorezm glory. They wanted to claim that they were called heirs of Khorezmshahs. That is why, during 120 years to the name of six khans from eleven was included the name of "Shakh" in stamps, coins and medallions of the citadel.
During the reign of this dynasty, the borders of Khiva were expanded, consolidated and secured. Independent power management system has been created. The capital, Khiva, has been transformed into one of the largest centers of science and education in Central Asia in the early 20th century.
In the 19th century, there were about 1,500 primary schools and 103 madrasahs in Khorezm. In the 19th century, where Khiva had 22 madrasahs, Khorezm achieved certain successes in literature, historiography, calligraphy, musical art, architecture and other fields of culture.
The works of Munis, Ogakhiy, Feruz, Kamil Khorazmiy Kamron Bayoni, Khisravi, Murad, Rozi, Mutrib Khonakharabiy, Laffasi are unique with their role in the development of Uzbek literature. Komil Khorezmi, who created the textbook of Tanbur Choir, made a great contribution to the Uzbek national art by the works such as "Maqomi Feruz Shohi" and "Panjgoh", while Ablugaziykhon initiated the Khorezm History School with his works "Shajarayi Turk", "Shajarayi Tarokima", Munis and Oghkhiys School of History and Translation "Firdavs ul-ikbol", "Zubdat ut-tavorix", "Giyos ud-davlat", "Jomeul-voqeoti Sultani" and "Shahid ul-ikbol". The works by Bayoni such as “ShajaraiKhorezmshahi” and “History of Khorezm” are considered as the main sources to learn the history of Uzbekistan.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries more than twenty madrasahs, mosques, minarets and roads were built. Tura Murad Tower (1888), Bikacon Bika Tower (1894), Polvon Kari Madrasah (1905), Kozi Kalon Madrasah (1905), Polvon Gate (1906), Islam Khoja Madrassah and Tower (1910-1911) and many other architectural monuments were erected directly under the direction of Muhammad Rahimhon.
Khorazm is a region within the republic of Uzbekistan. There was Khorezm district from February, 1925 to January, 1938, on the 15th of January, 1938 it was formed as a region. It is situated in the north-west of Uzbekistan at the low flows of the Amu-Darya River. It borders on north and north-west with Karakalpakistan, on south and south-west with Turkmenistan, on south-east with Bukhara. Its territory is 6.1 thousand square kilometers. The population is 1835.5 thousand people. It’s consisted of 10 rural districts (Baghat, Gurlan, Urganch, Khiva, Khonka, Shovot, Yangiariq, Yangibozor, Kushkupur, Khozorasp), 3 cities (Urganch, Khiva, Pitnak), 7 small towns (Gurlan. Khonka, Chalish, Shovot, Yangibazar, Kushkupir, Khozorasp), and 100 Citizens council of village. The center is Urgench city.